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An introduction to the guide While writing is a critical part of the scientific process, it is often taught secondarily to scientific concepts and becomes an afterthought to students.How many students can you recall who worked on a laboratory assignment or class project for weeks, only to throw together the written report the day before it was due? For many, this pattern occurs because we focus almost exclusively on the scientific process, all but neglecting the scientific writing process.

Scientific writing is often a difficult and arduous task for many students .Scientific writing is often a difficult and arduous task for many students.

It follows a different format and deviates in structure from how we were initially taught to write, or even how we currently write for English, history, or social science classes.This can make the scientific writing process appear overwhelming, especially when presented with new, complex content.However, effective writing can deepen understanding of the topic at hand by compelling the writer to present a coherent and logical story that is supported by previous research and new results.Clear scientific writing generally follows a specific format with key sections: an introduction to a particular topic, hypotheses to be tested, a description of methods, key results, and finally, a discussion that ties these results to our broader knowledge of the topic (Day and Gastel 2012).

This general format is inherent in most scientific writing and facilitates the transfer of information from author to reader if a few guidelines are followed.Here, we present a succinct step-by-step guide that lays out strategies for effective scientific writing with the intention that the guide be disseminated to undergraduate students to increase the focus on the writing process in the college classroom.While we recognize that there are no hard and fast rules when it comes to scientific writing, and more experienced writers may choose to disregard our suggestions these guidelines will assist undergraduates in overcoming the initial challenges associated with writing scientific papers.This guide was inspired by Joshua Schimel's Writing Science: How to Write Papers that Get Cited and Proposals that Get Funded—an excellent book about scientific writing for graduate students and professional scientists—but designed to address undergraduate students.

While the guide was written by a group of ecologists and evolutionary biologists, the strategies and suggestions presented here are applicable across the biological sciences and other scientific disciplines.

Regardless of the specific course being taught, this guide can be used as a reference when writing scientific papers, independent research projects, and laboratory reports.For students looking for more in-depth advice, additional resources are listed at the end of the guide.To illustrate points regarding each step of the scientific writing process, we draw examples throughout the guide from Kilner et al.(2004), a paper on brown-headed cowbirds—a species of bird that lays its eggs in the nests of other bird species, or hosts—that was published in the journal Science.investigate why cowbird nestlings tolerate the company of host offspring during development rather than pushing host eggs out of the nest upon hatching to monopolize parental resources.While articles in the journal Science are especially concise and lack the divisions of a normal scientific paper, Kilner et al.(2004) offers plenty of examples of effective communication strategies that are utilized in scientific writing.We hope that the guidelines that follow, as well as the concrete examples provided, will lead to scientific papers that are information rich, concise, and clear, while simultaneously alleviating frustration and streamlining the writing process.Undergraduate guide to writing in the biological sciences The before steps The scientific writing process can be a daunting and often procrastinated “last step” in the scientific process, leading to cursory attempts to get scientific arguments and results down on paper.

However, scientific writing is not an afterthought and should begin well before drafting the first outline.Successful writing starts with researching how your work fits into existing literature, crafting a compelling story, and determining how to best tailor your message to an intended audience.Research how your work fits into existing literature It is important to decide how your research compares to other studies of its kind by familiarizing yourself with previous research on the topic.If you are preparing a laboratory write-up, refer to your textbook and laboratory manual for background information.For a research article, perform a thorough literature search on a credible search engine (e.

Ask the following questions: What do we know about the topic? What open questions and knowledge do we not yet know? Why is this information important? This will provide critical insight into the structure and style that others have used when writing about the field and communicating ideas on this specific topic.It will also set you up to successfully craft a compelling story, as you will begin writing with precise knowledge of how your work builds on previous research and what sets your research apart from the current published literature.Understand your audience (and write to them) In order to write effectively, you must identify your audience and decide what story you want them to learn.

While this may seem obvious, writing about science as a narrative is often not done, largely because you were probably taught to remain dispassionate and impartial while communicating scientific findings.The purpose of science writing is not explaining what you did or what your audience to understand.Start by asking: Who is my audience? What are their goals in reading my writing? What message do I want them to take away from my writing? There are great resources available to help science writers answer these questions (Nisbet 2009, Baron 2010).If you are interested in publishing a scientific paper, academic journal websites also provide clear journal mission statements and submission guidelines for prospective authors.The most effective science writers are familiar with the background of their topic, have a clear story that they want to convey, and effectively craft their message to communicate that story to their audience.

Introduction The Introduction sets the tone of the paper by providing relevant background information and clearly identifying the problem you plan to address.Think of your Introduction as the beginning of a funnel: Start wide to put your research into a broad context that someone outside of the field would understand, and then narrow the scope until you reach the specific question that you are trying to answer (Fig.Clearly state the wider implications of your work for the field of study, or, if relevant, any societal impacts it may have, and provide enough background information that the reader can understand your topic.Perform a thorough sweep of the literature; however, do not parrot everything you find.

Background information should only include material that is directly relevant to your research and fits into your story; it does not need to contain an entire history of the field of interest.Remember to include in-text citations in the format of (Author, year published) for each paper that you cite and avoid using the author's name as the subject of the sentence: Figure 1.The structure of a paper mirrors that of an hourglass, opening broadly and narrowing to the specific question, hypothesis, methods, and results of the study.Effective papers widen again in the discussion and conclusion, connecting the study back to the existing literature and explaining how the current study filled a knowledge gap.

(2004) found that cowbird nestlings use host offspring to procure more food.” Instead, use an in-text citation: “Cowbird nestlings use host offspring to procure more food.2004) Upon narrowing the background information presented to arrive at the specific focus of your research, clearly state the problem that your paper addresses.

The problem is also known as the knowledge gap, or a specific area of the literature that contains an unknown question or problem (e.

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, it is unclear why cowbird nestlings tolerate host offspring when they must compete with host offspring for food) (refer to the section “Research how your work fits into existing literature”).The knowledge gap tends to be a small piece of a much larger field of study.Explicitly state how your work will contribute to filling that knowledge gap The Journal of Young Investigators (JYI) is an international scientific research journal   peer review is to determine which papers report “good” science that a journal   years. It takes a long time to write the paper, to submit it, for the referees to review it, for the editor to decide, for the author to make the revisions, for it..

Explicitly state how your work will contribute to filling that knowledge gap.

This is a crucial section of your manuscript; your discussion and conclusion should all be aimed at answering the knowledge gap that you are trying to fill.In addition, the knowledge gap will drive your hypotheses and questions that you design your experiment to answer Essay writing service Cheap writing services from Coolessay net.In addition, the knowledge gap will drive your hypotheses and questions that you design your experiment to answer.Your hypothesis will often logically follow the identification of the knowledge gap (Table 1).Define the hypotheses you wish to address, state the approach of your experiment, and provide a 1–2 sentence overview of your experimental design, leaving the specific details for the methods section.

If your methods are complicated, consider briefly explaining the reasoning behind your choice of experimental design.

Here, you may also state your system, study organism, or study site, and provide justification for why you chose this particular system for your research.Is your system, study organism, or site a good representation of a more generalized pattern? Providing a brief outline of your project will allow your Introduction to segue smoothly into your 'Materials and Methods' section. Constructing a hypothesis A hypothesis is a testable explanation of an observed occurrence in nature, or, more specifically, why something you observed is occurring.Hypotheses relate directly to research questions, are written in the present tense, and can be tested through observation or experimentation.

Although the terms “hypothesis” and “prediction” are often incorrectly used interchangeably, they refer to different but complementary concepts.A hypothesis attempts to explain the mechanism underlying a pattern, while a prediction states an expectation regarding the results.While challenging to construct, hypotheses provide powerful tools for structuring research, generating specific predictions, and designing experiments.Example: Observation: Brown-headed cowbird nestlings refrain from ejecting host offspring from the nest even though those offspring compete for limited parental resources.Research question: Why do nestling cowbirds tolerate the presence of host offspring in the nest? Hypothesis: The presence of host offspring causes parents to bring more food to the nest.

Prediction: Cowbird nestlings will grow at a faster rate in nests that contain host offspring.Materials and Methods The 'Materials and Methods' section is arguably the most straightforward section to write; you can even begin writing it while performing your experiments to avoid forgetting any details of your experimental design.In order to make your paper as clear as possible, organize this section into subsections with headers for each procedure you describe (e.We recommend reusing these headers in your Results and Discussion to help orient your readers.The aim of the 'Materials and Methods' section is to demonstrate that you used scientifically valid methods and provide the reader with enough information to recreate your experiment.In chronological order, clearly state the procedural steps you took, remembering to include the model numbers and specific settings of all equipment used (e., centrifuged in Beckman Coulter Benchtop Centrifuge Model Allegra X -15R at 12,000 ×g for 45 minutes).In addition to your experimental procedure, describe any statistical analyses that you performed.While the parameters you include in your 'Materials and Methods' section will vary based on your experimental design, we list common ones in Table 2 (Journal of Young Investigators 2005) that are usually mentioned.If you followed a procedure developed from another paper, cite the source that it came from and provide a general description of the method.There is no need to reiterate every detail, unless you deviated from the source and changed a step in your procedure.

However, it is important to provide enough information that the reader can follow your methods without referring to the original source.As you explain your experiment step by step, you may be tempted to include qualifiers where sources of error occurred (e., the tube was supposed to be centrifuged for 5 minutes, but was actually centrifuged for 10).However, generally wait until the Discussion to mention these subjective qualifiers and avoid discussing them in the 'Materials and Methods' section.

 Common parameters included in the 'Materials and Methods' section • Site characterization: Description of field site or site where experiment was performed • Experimental design: Sample preparation Important equipment settings (e., temperature of incubation, speed of centrifuge) Amount of reagents used • Statistical analyses conducted (e., ANOVA, linear regression) The 'Materials and Methods' section should be written in the past tense: “On hatch day, and every day thereafter for 9 days, we weighed chicks, measured their tibia length, and calculated the instantaneous growth constant K to summarize rates of mass gain and skeletal growth.2004) While it is generally advisable to use active voice throughout the paper (refer to the section “Putting It All Together,” below), you may want to use a mixture of active and passive voice in the 'Materials and Methods' section in order to vary sentence structure and avoid repetitive clauses.Results The Results section provides a space to present your key findings in a purely objective manner and lay the foundation for the Discussion section, where those data are subjectively interpreted.Before diving into this section, identify which graphs, tables, and data are absolutely necessary for telling your story.

Then, craft a descriptive sentence or two that summarizes each result, referring to corresponding table and figure numbers.Rather than presenting the details all at once, write a short summary about each data set.If you carried out a complicated study, we recommend dividing your results into multiple sections with clear headers following the sequence laid out in the 'Materials and Methods' section.As you relate each finding, be as specific as possible and describe your data biologically rather than through the lens of statistics.While statistical tests give your data credibility by allowing you to attribute observed differences to nonrandom variation, they fail to address the actual meaning of the data.

Instead, translate the data into biological terms and refer to statistical results as supplemental information, or even in parenthetical clauses (Schimel 2012).For example, if your dependent variable changed in response to a treatment, report the magnitude and direction of the effect, with the P-value in parentheses.“By day 8, cowbirds reared with host young were, on average, 14% heavier than cowbirds reared alone (unpaired t 16 = −2.

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05 (or your other statistical tests yielded nonsignificant results), report any noticeable trends in the data rather than simply dismissing the treatment as having no significant effect (Fry 1993).By focusing on the data and leaving out any interpretation of the results in this section, you will provide the reader with the tools necessary to objectively evaluate your findings.

Discussion and conclusion The Discussion section usually requires the most consideration, as this is where you interpret your results Some Modest Advice for Graduate Students Stearns Lab.Discussion and conclusion The Discussion section usually requires the most consideration, as this is where you interpret your results.

Your Discussion should form a self-contained story tying together your Introduction and Results sections (Schimel 2012).One potential strategy for writing the Discussion is to begin by explicitly stating the main finding(s) of your research (Cals and Kotz 2013).Remind the reader of the knowledge gap identified in the Introduction to re-spark curiosity about the question you set out to answer.Then, explicitly state how your experiment moved the field forward by filling that knowledge gap.

After the opening paragraph of your Discussion, we suggest addressing your question and hypotheses with specific evidence from your results.If there are multiple possible interpretations of a result, clearly lay out each competing explanation.In the cowbird example, a higher feeding rate in the presence of host offspring could indicate either (1) that the parents were more responsive to the begging behavior of their own species or (2) that the collective begging behavior of more offspring in the nest motivated the host parents to provide additional food (Kilner et al.Presenting and evaluating alternative explanations of your findings will provide clear opportunities for future research.

However, be sure to keep your Discussion concrete by referring to your results to support each given interpretation.Intermingled with these interpretations, reference preexisting literature and report how your results relate to previous findings (Casenove and Kirk 2016).Ask yourself the following questions: How do my results compare to those of similar studies? Are they consistent or inconsistent with what other researchers have found? If they are inconsistent, discuss why this might be the case.For example, are you asking a similar question in a different system, organism, or site? Was there a difference in the methods or experimental design? Any caveats of the study (e., small sample size, procedural mistakes, or known biases in the methods) should be transparent and briefly discussed.The conclusion, generally located in its own short section or the last paragraph of the Discussion, represents your final opportunity to state the significance of your research.Rather than merely restating your main findings, the conclusion should summarize the outcome of your study in a way that incorporates new insights or frames interesting questions that arose as a result of your research.Broaden your perspective again as you reach the bottom of the hourglass (Fig.While it is important to acknowledge the shortcomings or caveats of the research project, generally include these near the beginning of the conclusion or earlier in the Discussion.You want your take-home sentences to focus on what you have accomplished and the broader implications of your study, rather than your study's limitations or shortcomings (Schimel 2012).Putting it all together No matter how many boards you stack on top of each other, you still need nails to prevent the pile from falling apart.The same logic applies to a scientific paper.

Little things—such as flow, structure, voice, and word choice—will connect your story, polish your paper, and make it enjoyable to read.The reader should easily be able to move from one concept to another, either within a sentence or between paragraphs.To bolster the flow, constantly remind yourself of the overarching story; always connect new questions with resolutions and tie new concepts to previously presented ideas.As a general rule, try to maintain the same subject throughout a section and mix up sentence structure in order to emphasize different concepts.

Keep in mind that words or ideas placed toward the end of a sentence often convey the most importance (Schimel 2012).The use of active voice with occasional sentences in passive voice will additionally strengthen your writing.Scientific writing is rife with passive voice that weakens otherwise powerful sentences by stripping the subjects of action.However, when used properly, the passive voice can improve flow by strategically placing a sentence's subject so that it echoes the emphasis of the preceding sentence.Compare the following sentences: “The cowbird nestlings tolerated the host nestlings.

” (active) (passive) If host nestlings are the focus of the paragraph as a whole, it may make more sense to present the passive sentence in this case, even though it is weaker than the active version.While passive and active voices can complement each other in particular situations, you should typically use the active voice whenever possible.Lastly, word choice is critical for effective storytelling (Journal of Young Investigators 2005).Rather than peppering your report or manuscript with overly complicated words, use simple words to lay the framework of your study and discuss your findings.Eliminating any flourish and choosing words that get your point across as clearly as possible will make your work much more enjoyable to read (Strunk and White 1979, Schimel 2012).

Editing and peer review Although you have finally finished collecting data and writing your report, you are not done yet! Re-reading your paper and incorporating constructive feedback from others can make the difference between getting a paper accepted or rejected from a journal or receiving one letter grade over another on a report.The editing stage is where you put the finishing touches on your work.Start by taking some time away from your paper.Ideally, you began your paper early enough that you can refrain from looking at it for a day or two.

However, if the deadline looms large, take an hour break at the very least.

Come back to your paper and verify that it still expresses what you intended to say.Where are the gaps in your story structure? What has not been explained clearly? Where is the writing awkward, making it difficult to understand your point? Consider reading the paper out loud first, and then print and edit a hard copy to inspect the paper from different angles.On the first run-through of your paper, make sure you addressed all of the main ideas of the study.One way to achieve this is by writing down the key points you want to hit prior to re-reading your paper.

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If your paper deviates from these points, you may need to delete some paragraphs.In contrast, if you forgot to include something, add it in.To check the flow of your paragraphs, verify that a common thread ties each paragraph to the preceding one, and similarly, that each sentence within a paragraph builds on the previous sentence Need to buy a research paper biology A4 (British/European) Business American single spaced.To check the flow of your paragraphs, verify that a common thread ties each paragraph to the preceding one, and similarly, that each sentence within a paragraph builds on the previous sentence.

Finally, re-read the paper with a finer lens, editing sentence structure and word choice as you go to put the finishing touches on your work.Grammar and spelling are just as important as your scientific story; a poorly written paper will have limited impact regardless of the quality of the ideas expressed (Harley et al Best website to purchase a college research paper biology 100% plagiarism free Rewriting Academic American 52 pages / 14300 words.

Grammar and spelling are just as important as your scientific story; a poorly written paper will have limited impact regardless of the quality of the ideas expressed (Harley et al.

After editing your own paper, ask someone else to read it Best website to purchase a college research paper biology 100% plagiarism free Rewriting Academic American 52 pages / 14300 words.After editing your own paper, ask someone else to read it.A classmate is ideal because he/she understands the assignment and could exchange papers with you golge.com/essay/best-websites-to-get-college-tourism-essay-25-pages-6875-words-5-days-double-spaced-for-me.A classmate is ideal because he/she understands the assignment and could exchange papers with you.The editing steps described above also apply when editing someone else's paper.If a classmate is not available, try asking a family member or a friend.

Having a fresh set of eyes examine your work may help you identify sections of your paper that need clarification.This procedure will also give you a glimpse into the peer review process, which is integral to professional science writing (Guilford 2001).Don't be discouraged by negative comments—incorporating the feedback of reviewers will only strengthen your paper.Conclusion While the basics of writing are generally taught early in life, many people constantly work to refine their writing ability throughout their careers.

Even professional scientists feel that they can always write more effectively.Focusing on the strategies for success laid out in this guide will not only improve your writing skills, but also make the scientific writing process easier and more efficient.However, keep in mind that there is no single correct way to write a scientific paper, and as you gain experience with scientific writing, you will begin to find your own voice.Good luck and happy writing! Additional resources For those interested in learning more about the skill of scientific writing, we recommend the following resources.We note that much of the inspiration and concrete ideas for this step-by-step guide originated from Schimel's Writing Science: How to Write Papers that Get Cited and Proposals that Get Funded.

Writing scientific manuscripts: a guide for undergraduates.Journal of Young Investigators, California.Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 79: 171–172.A student's guide to writing in the life sciences.

The President and Fellows of Harvard University, Massachusetts.Writing science: how to write papers that get cited and proposals that get funded.

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Introduction You can't write a good introduction until you know what the body of the paper says.Consider writing the introductory section(s) after you have completed the rest of the paper, rather than before.Be sure to include a hook at the beginning of the introduction 15 Apr 2016 - Requiring students to both catalog and reflect on their own work by constructing research papers allows students to experience yet another facet of a scientist's job   If general undergraduate biology courses teach students the elements of good scientific writing and how to properly format a paper, future  .Be sure to include a hook at the beginning of the introduction.

This is a statement of something sufficiently interesting to motivate your reader to read the rest of the paper, it is an important/interesting scientific problem that your paper either solves or addresses.

You should draw the reader in and make them want to read the rest of the paper.The next paragraphs in the introduction should cite previous research in this area.It should cite those who had the idea or ideas first, and should also cite those who have done the most recent and relevant work.You should then go on to explain why more work was necessary (your work, of course golge.com/essay/tourism.php.You should then go on to explain why more work was necessary (your work, of course.)What else belongs in the introductory section(s) of your paper?A statement of the goal of the paper: why the study was undertaken, or why the paper was written.

Sufficient background information to allow the reader to understand the context and significance of the question you are trying to address.Proper acknowledgement of the previous work on which you are building.Sufficient references such that a reader could, by going to the library, achieve a sophisticated understanding of the context and significance of the question.The introduction should be focused on the thesis question(s).

All cited work should be directly relevent to the goals of the thesis.This is not a place to summarize everything you have ever read on a subject.Explain the scope of your work, what will and will not be included.A verbal "road map" or verbal "table of contents" guiding the reader to what lies ahead.Is it obvious where introductory material ("old stuff") ends and your contribution ("new stuff") begins?Remember that this is not a review paper.

We are looking for original work and interpretation/analysis by you.Break up the introduction section into logical segments by using subheads.Methods What belongs in the "methods" section of a scientific paper? Information to allow the reader to assess the believability of your results.Information needed by another researcher to replicate your experiment.

Description of your materials, procedure, theory.

Calculations, technique, procedure, equipment, and calibration plots.Limitations, assumptions, and range of validity.Desciption of your analystical methods, including reference to any specialized statistical software.The methods section should answering the following questions and caveats:Could one accurately replicate the study (for example, all of the optional and adjustable parameters on any sensors or instruments that were used to acquire the data)? Could another researcher accurately find and reoccupy the sampling stations or track lines? Is there enough information provided about any instruments used so that a functionally equivalent instrument could be used to repeat the experiment? If the data are in the public domain, could another researcher lay his or her hands on the identical data set? Could one replicate any laboratory analyses that were used?Could one replicate any statistical analyses? Could another researcher approximately replicate the key algorithms of any computer software? Citations in this section should be limited to data sources and references of where to find more complete descriptions of procedures.Do not include descriptions of results.

Results Indicate information on range of variation.Mention negative results as well as positive.Do not interpret results - save that for the discussion.Present sufficient details so that others can draw their own inferences and construct their own explanations.

Break up your results into logical segments by using subheadings Key results should be stated in clear sentences at the beginning of paragraphs.

It is far better to say "X had significant positive relationship with Y (linear regression p<0.79)" then to start with a less informative like "There is a significant relationship between X and Y".Describe the nature of the findings; do not just tell the reader whether or not they are significant.

Discussion Sections Quarantine your observations from your interpretations.The writer must make it crystal clear to the reader which statements are observation and which are interpretation.In most circumstances, this is best accomplished by physically separating statements about new observations from statements about the meaning or significance of those observations.Alternatively, this goal can be accomplished by careful use of phrases such as "I infer .

" vast bodies of geological literature became obsolete with the advent of plate tectonics; the papers that survived are those in which observations were presented in stand-alone fashion, unmuddied by whatever ideas the author might have had about the processes that caused the observed phenomena.Physical separation into different sections or paragraphs.Don't overlay interpretation on top of data in figures.Careful use of phrases such as "We infer that ".Why?Easier for your reader to absorb, frequent shifts of mental mode not required.Ensures that your work will endure in spite of shifting paradigms.

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Discussion Start with a few sentences that summarize the most important results.The discussion section should be a brief essay in itself, answering the following questions and caveats:What are the major patterns in the observations? (Refer to spatial and temporal variations.) What are the relationships, trends and generalizations among the results? What are the exceptions to these patterns or generalizations? What are the likely causes (mechanisms) underlying these patterns resulting predictions? Is there agreement or disagreement with previous work? Interpret results in terms of background laid out in the introduction - what is the relationship of the present results to the original question? What is the implication of the present results for other unanswered questions in earth sciences, ecology, environmental policy, etc I've never written a 10 page research paper, but I have written stories over ten pages in about six to eight hours, sometimes longer. My largest story written at this time is almost 80 Word pages long, and that's before adding the other parts which all comes to about 150 Word pages or more. Took me about two weeks..

) What are the relationships, trends and generalizations among the results? What are the exceptions to these patterns or generalizations? What are the likely causes (mechanisms) underlying these patterns resulting predictions? Is there agreement or disagreement with previous work? Interpret results in terms of background laid out in the introduction - what is the relationship of the present results to the original question? What is the implication of the present results for other unanswered questions in earth sciences, ecology, environmental policy, etc.

? Multiple hypotheses: There are usually several possible explanations for results.Be careful to consider all of these rather than simply pushing your favorite one.If you can eliminate all but one, that is great, but often that is not possible with the data in hand.In that case you should give even treatment to the remaining possibilities, and try to indicate ways in which future work may lead to their discrimination.Avoid bandwagons: A special case of the above.

Avoid jumping a currently fashionable point of view unless your results really do strongly support them.What are the things we now know or understand that we didn't know or understand before the present work? Include the evidence or line of reasoning supporting each interpretation.What is the significance of the present results: why should we care?This section should be rich in references to similar work and background needed to interpret results.However, interpretation/discussion section(s) are often too long and verbose.Is there material that does not contribute to one of the elements listed above? If so, this may be material that you will want to consider deleting or moving.

Break up the section into logical segments by using subheads.Conclusions What is the strongest and most important statement that you can make from your observations?If you met the reader at a meeting six months from now, what do you want them to remember about your paper?Refer back to problem posed, and describe the conclusions that you reached from carrying out this investigation, summarize new observations, new interpretations, and new insights that have resulted from the present work.Include the broader implications of your results.Do not repeat word for word the abstract, introduction or discussion.

Recommendations Remedial action to solve the problem.

Further research to fill in gaps in our understanding.Directions for future investigations on this or related topics.AcknowledgmentsAdvisor(s) and anyone who helped you:technically (including materials, supplies) Referencesif you make a statement, back it up with your own data or a reference all references cited in the text must be listed cite single-author references by the surname of the author (followed by date of the publication in parenthesis) .population growth is one of the greatest environmental concerns facing future generations (Hays, 1994).

cite double-author references by the surnames of both authors (followed by date of the publication in parenthesis) e.Simpson and Hays (1994) cite more than double-author references by the surname of the first author followed by et al.and then the date of the publication e.Pfirman, Simpson and Hays would be: Pfirman et al.(1994) do not use footnotes list all references cited in the text in alphabetical order using the following format for different types of material: Hunt, S.(1966) Carbohydrate and amino acid composition of the egg capsules of the whelk.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1997) Commonly asked questions about ozone.

Hays (1996) Undergraduate research at Barnard and Columbia, Journal of Research, 11, 213-214.(1987) A short guide to writing about biology.Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 194pp.Child (1964) Review of ciliary structure and function.In: Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa, Vol.Hutner, editor), Academic Press, New York, 131-198.(1997) lecture notes, Environmental Data Analysis, Barnard College, Oct 2, 1997.Bonani (1995) A high altitude continental paleotemperature record derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater from the San Juan Basin, New Mexico.New York Times (1/15/00) PCBs in the Hudson still an issue, A2.

it is acceptable to put the initials of the individual authors behind their last names, e., and Hays, J (1996) Undergraduate research at .AppendicesInclude all your data in the appendix.Reference data/materials not easily available (theses are used as a resource by the department and other students).

Calculations (where more than 1-2 pages).You may include a key article as appendix.If you consulted a large number of references but did not cite all of them, you might want to include a list of additional resource material, etc.List of equipment used for an experiment or details of complicated procedures.

How to write a thesis

Note: Figures and tables, including captions, should be embedded in the text and not in an appendix, unless they are more than 1-2 pages and are not critical to your argument.Crosscutting Issues What Are We Looking For? We are looking for a critical analysis.We want you to answer a scientific question or hypothesis Writers Per Hour Custom Essays Research Papers Dissertations.We want you to answer a scientific question or hypothesis.

We would like you to gather evidence -- from various sources -- to allow you to make interpretations and judgments.

Your approach/methods should be carefully designed to come to closure.Your results should be clearly defined and discussed in the context of your topic.You should place your analysis in a broader context, and highlight the implications (regional, global, etc golge.com/powerpoint-presentation/fossil-fuels.php.You should place your analysis in a broader context, and highlight the implications (regional, global, etc.We are looking for a well-reasoned line of argument, from your initial question, compilation of relevant evidence, setting data in a general/universal context, and finally making a judgment based on your analysis.Your thesis should be clearly written and in the format described below.Planning Ahead for Your Thesis If at all possible, start your thesis research during the summer between your junior and senior year - or even earlier - with an internship, etc.then work on filling in background material and lab work during the fallso that you're prepared to write and present your research during the spring .

The best strategy is to pick a project that you are interested in, but also that a faculty member or other professional is working on.This person will become your research mentor and this gives you someone to talk with and get background material from.If you're unsure about the selection of a project, let us know and we'll try to connect you with someone.Writing for an Audience Who is your audience?Researchers working in analogous field areas elsewhere in the world (i.other strike-slip faults, other deep sea fans).Researchers working in your field area, but with different techniques.Researchers working on the same interval of geologic time elsewhere in the world.All other researchers using the same technique you have used .If your study encompasses an active process, researchers working on the same process in the ancient record.

Conversely, if your study is based on the rock record, people studying modem analogs.People writing a synthesis paper on important new developments in your field.People applying earth science to societal problems (i.earthquake hazard reduction, climate warming) who will try to understand your paper.

Potential reviewers of your manuscript or your thesis committee.Reading Because of the literature explosion, papers more skimmed than read.Skimming involves reading the abstract, and looking at the figures and figure captions.

Therefore, you should construct your paper so that it can be understood by skimming, i.

, the conclusions, as written in your abstract, can be understood by study of the figures and captions.The text fills out the details for the more interested reader.Order of Writing Your thesis is not written in the same order as it is presented in.The following gives you one idea how to proceed.

first organize your paper as a logical argument before you begin writing make your figures to illustrate your argument (think skimming) the main sections are: background to the argument (intro); describing the information to be used in the argument, and making points about them (observations), connecting the points regarding the info (analysis), summing up (conclusions).outline the main elements: sections, and subsections begin writing, choosing options in the following hierarchy - paragraphs, sentences, and words.Write up a preliminary version of the background section first.This will serve as the basis for the introduction in your final paper.

As you collect data, write up the methods section.It is much easier to do this right after you have collected the data.Be sure to include a description of the research equipment and relevant calibration plots.When you have some data, start making plots and tables of the data.These will help you to visualize the data and to see gaps in your data collection.

If time permits, you should go back and fill in the gaps.You are finished when you have a set of plots that show a definite trend (or lack of a trend).Be sure to make adequate statistical tests of your results.Once you have a complete set of plots and statistical tests, arrange the plots and tables in a logical order.Write figure captions for the plots and tables.

A student s guide to writing in the life sciences harvard writing nbsp

As much as possible, the captions should stand alone in explaining the plots and tables.Many scientists read only the abstract, figures, figure captions, tables, table captions, and conclusions of a paper.Be sure that your figures, tables and captions are well labeled and well documented A good abstract explains in one line why the paper is important. It then goes on to give a summary of your major results, preferably couched in numbers with error limits. The final sentences explain the major implications of your work. A good abstract is concise, readable, and quantitative. Length should be ~ 1-2 paragraphs,  .Be sure that your figures, tables and captions are well labeled and well documented.

Once your plots and tables are complete, write the results section.Writing this section requires extreme discipline Scientific Writing Made Easy A Step by Step Guide to Undergraduate nbsp.

Writing this section requires extreme discipline.

You must describe your results, but you must NOT interpret them Scientific Writing Made Easy A Step by Step Guide to Undergraduate nbsp.You must describe your results, but you must NOT interpret them.(If good ideas occur to you at this time, save them at the bottom of the page for the discussion section golge.com/essay/health-professions.php.(If good ideas occur to you at this time, save them at the bottom of the page for the discussion section.) Be factual and orderly in this section, but try not to be too dry.Once you have written the results section, you can move on to the discussion section.This is usually fun to write, because now you can talk about your ideas about the data.

If you can come up with a good cartoon/schematic showing your ideas, do so.Many papers are cited in the literature because they have a good cartoon that subsequent authors would like to use or modify.In writing the discussion session, be sure to adequately discuss the work of other authors who collected data on the same or related scientific questions.Be sure to discuss how their work is relevant to your work.If there were flaws in their methodology, this is the place to discuss it.

After you have discussed the data, you can write the conclusions section.In this section, you take the ideas that were mentioned in the discussion section and try to come to some closure.If some hypothesis can be ruled out as a result of your work, say so.If more work is needed for a definitive answer, say that.The final section in the paper is a recommendation section.

This is really the end of the conclusion section in a scientific paper.Make recommendations for further research or policy actions in this section.If you can make predictions about what will be found if X is true, then do so.You will get credit from later researchers for this.After you have finished the recommendation section, look back at your original introduction.

Your introduction should set the stage for the conclusions of the paper by laying out the ideas that you will test in the paper.Now that you know where the paper is leading, you will probably need to rewrite the introduction.Figures and Tables The actual figures and tables should be embedded/inserted in the text, generally on the page following the page where the figure/table is first cited in the text.

All figures and tables should be numbered and cited consecutively in the text as figure 1, figure 2, table 1, table 2, etc.

Include a caption for each figure and table, citing how it was constructed (reference citations, data sources, etc.) and highlighting the key findings (think skimming).Include an index figure (map) showing and naming all locations discussed in paper.You are encouraged to make your own figures, including cartoons, schematics or sketches that illustrate the processes that you discuss.Examine your figures with these questions in mind:Is the figure self-explanatory?Show the uncertainty in your data with error bars.

If the data are fit by a curve, indicate the goodness of fit.Could chart junk be eliminated?Could non-data ink be eliminated? Could redundant data ink be eliminated? Could data density be increased by eliminating non-data bearing space? Is this a sparse data set that could better be expressed as a table? Does the figure distort the data in any way? Are the data presented in context? Does the figure caption guide the reader's eye to the "take-home lesson" of the figure? Figures should be oriented vertically, in portrait mode, wherever possible.If you must orient them horizontally, in landscape mode, orient them so that you can read them from the right, not from the left, where the binding will be.Tying the Text to the Data"Show them, don't just tell them…" Ideally, every result claimed in the text should be documented with data, usually data presented in tables or figures.If there are no data provided to support a given statement of result or observation, consider adding more data, or deleting the unsupported "observation.

"Examine figure(s) or table(s) pertaining to the result(s).Assess whether:the data contradict the textual statement the data are insufficient to prove or refute the textual statement the data may support the textual statement, but are not presented in such a way that you can be sure you are seeing the same phenomenon in the data that the author claims to have seen.Giving Credit How does one fairly and accurately indicate who has made what contributions towards the results and interpretations presented in your paper?: by referencing, authorship, and acknowledgements.Different types of errors: direct quotes without quotation marks, with attribution concepts/ideas without attribution concepts/ideas with sloppy attribution omitting or fabricating data or results Check references carefully and reread reference works prior to publication.The first time you read something, you will consciously remember some things, but may subconsciously take in other aspects.

It is important to cross check your conscious memory against your citations.See also: Sigma Xi, 1984, Honor in Science Yale University pamphlet on plagiarismFinal Thesis Make 3 final copies: 1 to mentor and 2 to department, so that we can have 2 readers.

Help me do custom research paper biology online a4 (british/european) double spaced standard oxford

The Barnard Writing Room provides assistance on writing senior theses.Look at other theses on file in the Environmental Science department, they will give you an idea of what we are looking for.Of course do not hesitate to ask us, or your research advisor for help Once you check the .pdf version of the paper (this version is unprintable and uneditable), you have two options: ask for the revision in case the paper needs to be checked/edited by the writer or approve the order and download a .doc version which is the final version. Our custom writing services perform such way of  .Of course do not hesitate to ask us, or your research advisor for help.

The Barnard Environmental Science Department has many books on scientific writing, ask the departmental administrator for assistance in locating them.phrases with an "-ing" verb, in sentences where the agent performing the action of the "-ing" verb is not specified: " After standing in boiling water for two hours, examine the flask.Make sure that the antecedent for every pronoun (it, these, those, that, this, one) is crystal clear 3 Oct 2016 - Scientific writing, while an indispensable step of the scientific process, is often overlooked in undergraduate courses in favor of maximizing class time   Regardless of the specific course being taught, this guide can be used as a reference when writing scientific papers, independent research projects, and  .Make sure that the antecedent for every pronoun (it, these, those, that, this, one) is crystal clear.If in doubt, use the noun rather than the pronoun, even if the resulting sentence seems a little bit redundant.Ensure that subject and verb agree in number (singular versus plural).Be especially careful with compound subjects.Be especially careful with subject/verb agreement within clauses.

Avoid qualitative adjectives when describing concepts that are quantifiable ("The water is deep.")Avoid noun strings ("acoustic noise source location technique").Spell out all acronyms the first time that you use them.Thesis length Write for brevity rather than length.The goal is the shortest possible paper that contains all information necessary to describe the work and support the interpretation.

Avoid unnecessary repetition and irrelevant tangents.Necessary repetition: the main theme should be developed in the introduction as a motivation or working hypothesis.It is then developed in the main body of the paper, and mentioned again in the discussion section (and, of course, in the abstract and conclusions).Some suggestions on how to shorten your paper:Use tables for repetitive information.

Include only sufficient background material to permit the reader to understand your story, not every paper ever written on the subject.

Don't describe the contents of the figures and/or tables in the text item-by-item.Instead, use the text to point out the most significant patterns, items or trends in the figures and tables.Delete "observations" or "results" that are mentioned in the text for which you have not shown data.Delete "conclusions" that are not directly supported by your observations or results.

Delete "interpretation" or "discussion" sections that are inconclusive.Delete "interpretation" or "discussion" sections that are only peripherally related to your new results or observations.Scrutinize adjectives! adverbs and prepositional phrases.Although it varies considerably from project to project, average thesis length is about 40 pages of text plus figures.This total page count includes all your text as well as the list of references, but it does not include any appendices.

These generalizations should not be taken too seriously, especially if you are working on a labor-intensive lab project.If you have any questions about whether your project is of sufficient scope, consult one of us early on.Writing for an International Audience Put as much information as possible into figures and tables.In particular, try to find a way to put your conclusions into a figure, perhaps a flowchart or a cartoon.Don't assume that readers are familiar with the geography or the stratigraphy of your field area.

Every single place-name mentioned in the text should be shown on a map.Consider including a location map, either as a separate figure or as an inset to another figure.If your paper involves stratigraphy, consider including a summary stratigraphic column--in effect, a location map in time.Favor usages that can be looked up in an ordinary dictionary."Take the beaker out of the oven immediately." rather than "Take the beaker out of the oven right away.